September 12, 2021

We have been overwhelmed with hypotheses trying to determine exactly what COVID-19 is. I, myself, am certainly a generous contributor to this tsunami of conjecture as to what exactly is happening pathologically in a SARS-CoV-2 infection. This is understandable as the disease manifests itself with such a wide variety of symptoms.

And this is the point. It is a MULTI-SYSTEMIC DISEASE. As with all other multi-systemic diseases, there is no concrete order for the appearance of symptoms as everyone will have symptoms present in accordance with their respective genetics. The end results will be the same, the roads traveled to reach those results will be unique.


If we look at the iron overload factor alone, this is a major clue. Iron homeostasis is intimately related with alpha-synuclein. A protein which can misfold, just like a PRION. But, it is NOT a PRION. It can become what we know of as a LEWY BODY. These misfolded proteins can aggregate (clump together). This is when they interfere with cellular functions. 

Parkinson’s Disease is a possible result of Lewy Body aggregation, and, indeed, we see many Parkinsonian features in COVID-19 disease, yet the diagnosis is not satisfactory as there are many other elements and systems involved in COVID-19 disease.

This is where I started delving into multiple system diseases. The answer had to be found there. After exhaustively studying multi-system diseases and knowing of the neurological symptoms of COVID-19, it appeared to me that, ultimately, we are looking at a novel variant of Multiple System Atrophy (MSA).

The good news? You can live with it for around nine years. The bad news? It is 100% fatal.

This is not to fear monger, but to underscore the severity of what we may be dealing with. Perhaps this version is treatable and reversible as it may be related to CONSTANT SIGNALING of the spike protein. Remove all the spike proteins from the body, or silence them, the condition resolves. Think of the spike protein as latent HIV – you get the picture.

What most attracted me to MSA as a likely candidate was the overexpression of miRNA hsa- ir-16-5p. This is the most overexpressed miRNA in MSA – it is also a miRNA intimately related to ACE2.

Of course, that is not all, not in the least. The relation of Iron and MSA is extremely important. MSA has appeared in patients with Schizophrenia. Autopsies of MSA patients show T-cell infiltrations. So do COVID-19 autopsies. SARS-CoV-2 neuroinvasion is believed to cause aggregation of alpha-synuclein, MSA is considered to be a synucleinopathy. Posterior Reversible Encephalopathy Syndrome is observed in MSA, and in COVID-19.

Of course, the symptoms of Long COVID themselves are perfectly aligned with MSA. And, they include those with distinct differences from Parkinson’s. Unique features: Important differences distinguish the symptoms and course of MSA from Parkinson’s disease and other conditions of the nervous system, such as cerebellar ataxia or pure autonomic failure (PAF).

Notably, MSA affects several areas of the brain, including the cerebellum, the brain’s balance and coordination centers, and the autonomic nervous system.

I believe the Spike Protein will be found responsible for Long COVID/MSA. Distinct from the “respiratory” acute phase, which may be more
linked to the N protein.

Referenced/Related Papers

What is Multiple System Atrophy?


ACE2 Interaction Networks in COVID-19: A Physiological Framework for Prediction of Outcome in Patients with Cardiovascular Risk Factors


MicroRNA Deregulation in Blood Serum Identifies Multiple System Atrophy Altered Pathways


Accumulation of alpha-synuclein/NACP is a cytopathological feature common to Lewy body disease and multiple system atrophy


Possible multiple system atrophy with predominant parkinsonism in a patient with chronic schizophrenia: a case report


Deep spatial profiling of human COVID-19 brains reveals neuroinflammation with distinct microanatomical microglia-T-cell interactions


Possible Link between SARS-CoV-2 Infection and Parkinson’s Disease: The Role of Toll-Like Receptor 4


Posterior Reversible Encephalopathy Syndrome in a Patient With Multiple System Atrophy


Current Symptomatic and Disease-Modifying Treatments in Multiple System Atrophy


The Relevance of Iron in the Pathogenesis of Multiple System Atrophy: A Viewpoint