February 13, 2022
A forthcoming paper, discussed by Thailand Medical News, shows the efforts of a group of Spanish researchers who found that the Vagus nerve is very likely involved in many aspects of Long COVID. However, though this I believe is most certainly true, it is induced primarily by the Spike Protein’s invasion of the HYPOTHALAMUS.
Heavy presence of the S-protein and ACE2 was observed in fibers lining the wall of the 3V, some capillary walls and some vimentin-positive tanycytes at the level of the ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus (VMH) in a patient brain; light labeling was also seen in cells with a neuron-like morphology in the parenchyma.
Schizophrenia appears again, as it is critically implicated with hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis dysregulation. SO IS THE RESPONSE TO ACUTE STRESS! The hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis is a critical regulator of physiologic and psychological responses to acute and chronic stressors. HPA axis function is control by numerous feedback inhibitory mechanisms, disruptions of which can lead to various psychiatric conditions, such as depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, and schizophrenia. Vagus nerve stimulation has been shown to be efficacious in the treatment of in these various mental health issues potentially via modulation of HPA axis function, but the mechanisms by which the vagus nerve may regulate HPA function has not been fully elucidated. A paper from last summer addressed these mechanisms.
In addition to the hypothalamus, it is also though that the Spike Protein (virus) targets the Insula, as these neurons project to the gustatory cortex, located in the insula and the medial surface of the frontal operculum, which may also be potential CNS targets of SARS-CoV-2. Regarding the possible invasion of brainstem nuclei by SARS-CoV-2, the importance of the NST and the nucleus ambiguous (NA) must be emphasized.
Sudden death is an "electrical accident" caused by fatal cardiac arrhythmias. The brain-heart interactions enable second-to-second regulation of our cardiac activity and vasomotor tone in response to physical activity, threats, stresses, and changes in emotional states. Nevertheless, abnormal neurological conditions and emotional states can produce cardiovascular and autonomic disturbances; cerebrogenic sudden death is the most serious consequence.
There are implications for Long COVID, as this “electrical fog” may be one of the root causes of Long COVID.
To elaborate on my “scarring” hypothesis of COVID-19 pathology, it is as though the ELECTRICAL CONDUCTION HIGHWAY IS FILLED WITH EVER INCREASING (?) CIRCUIT-BREAKING “POTHOLES.”
The vagus nerve is critical for regulation of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis responses to acute stress
Neuromechanisms of SARS-CoV-2: A Review
The Insula and Cerebrogenic Sudden Death
Spanish Researchers Claim COVID-19 Causes Dysfunction of the Vagus Nerve
The hypothalamus as a hub for SARS-CoV-2 brain infection and pathogenesis